Single units of a nanometer is one billionth of a meter. Nanotechnology in medicine makes use of nanometer sized chips to store and interprets high density quality information. It shows desired utility in accordance with pre-programmed instructions on target tissues. It is increasingly being applied to coax regulation of functional systems at the molecular level. This micro-miniature technology is increasingly finding its way to cure diseases with out the use of surgery. Most of our ailments are the external manifestations of damage caused at the cellular and molecular levels. Rectification to these damages can not be undertaken by conventional surgical instruments too large and crude for the cellular and molecular level manipulation.
Currently when much research is being carried out in cell biology and genetics at its basic precision and accurate level, the call of the hour is devising of a technology that is able to cater to the structure and functions at this level. The nanotechnology is being engineered to intervene as molecular-machines which are sophisticated and well controlled at the unit level. With the use of this technology the micro-molecules injected in the human body will be able to remove obstructions of any kind, function as sub cellular organelles, and kill cancer cells and much more. Nano engineers in Singapore have engineered a polymerized contact lens which is capable of will releasing small amounts of medicine to treat eye related ailments such as glaucoma.
The mechanism that will function behind nanotechnology at cellular level is by way of designing and erecting a programmable self-replicating manufacturing devise capable of identifying defective cells whilst circulating in the circulating system. These devices which are programmable and controllable can detect cancer cells by sensing differential environment between the normal cells and cancer cells and any other unwanted structures. Nanotechnology will be used to supply oxygen to tissues having minimized blood supply due to any of the blood loss reasons. Scientists at MIT have used an artificially synthesized polymer attached to a specific gene coding for the bacterial toxic. The polymer acts like a suicide bomber and attacks the altered cells and gradually destroys it in the process.
Drug delivery to the specific target cells with the help of nano sized particles is more efficient due to its enhanced properties of solubility and absorption when attached to a molecular carrier such as a polymer. The bio-chips making use of nanotechnology will also facilitate the scrutinizing of levels of biochemical in the blood stream and release suitable drug accordingly.